Yield criterion
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Yield criterion or yield function, defines the state of stresses at which material response changes from elastic to plastic. We define a yield function F, which is a function of stresses σ and quantities α and Wp which control the hardening (i.e. how a given yield surface in space is modified due to a plastic strain response:

(137) 
If we evaluate F the possible results are:
Fig. 38. Yield surface. 

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