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In this case, the straight line r of measure lies in the plane orthogonal to N axis and all where all points are then characterized by N = NEd (design axial force). To be sure that the origin O’ of the measure line r is internal to the interaction surface, O’ is assumed as the intersection of the straight line O4 with the plane N = NEd . So the safety measure is the segment ratio O'R / O'S.

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