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## Reinforcement options |

The options relevant to the reinforcements refer to the bulkhead structural planning.

Piles

These data are used for the design and structural checks carried out on bulkheads made up of reinforced concrete piles:

•Diameter of longitudinal bars: diameter of the tubular rods expressed in mm (Order of magnitude = 12/26 mm)

•Minimum number of bars: minimum number to consider

•Longitudinal bars hooks length: expressed in cm (Order of magnitude = 50/150 cm)

•Maximum length of longitudinal bars: expressed in cm (Order of magnitude = 800/1200 cm)

•Clear cover: expressed in cm (Order of magnitude = 4/6 cm)

•Stirrups diameter: expressed in mm (Order of magnitude = 8/10 mm)

•Diameter/No. of stiffening circles: diameter expressed in mm and number of stiffening circles

•Minimum stirrups spacing: expressed in cm (imposed by normative, order of magnitude =15/25 cm)

•[Tubulars] Pile segment anchored to the top: expressed in cm (smaller that the beam head)

•[Tubulars] diameter of the U-bolt bars: expressed in mm

Diaphragms

Data used for the design and structural checks carried out on bulkheads made up of reinforced concrete diaphragms:

•Diameter of longitudinal bars: expressed in mm (Order of magnitude = 12/26 mm), it represents the diameter of the vertical reinforcement

•Wall bars diameter: expressed in mm (Order of magnitude = 10/14 mm), it represents the diameter of the horizontal reinforcement

•Tension/compressive reinforcement ratio: dimensionless number (Usually imposed by the regulations on the basis of considerations also made with regard to the ductility of the section. In any case it will be lower than or equal to 1)

•Minimum reinf. net spacing: minimum net distance between the bars, expressed in cm (must be compatible with the size of the inert material used for the packaging of the concrete; in any case it has an order of magnitude = 2.5/5 cm)

•Maximum reinf. net spacing: expressed in cm (Order of magnitude = 4/8 cm)

•Side clear cover of the bars barycenter: measured starting from the barycentre of the bars, expressed in cm (Order of magnitude = 4/6 cm)

•Stirrups diameter: expressed in mm (Order of magnitude = 8/10 mm), it represents the diameter of the transversal reinforcement

•Minimum stirrups spacing: expressed in cm (Usually imposed by the regulations, in any case Order of magnitude = 15/25 cm)

•Maximum stirrups legs distance: expressed in cm (Order of magnitude 14/26 cm)

Capping beam

These data are used for the planning and structural checks carried out on the head connecting beam realized on bulkheads made up of piles:

•Diameter of longitudinal bars: Expressed in mm (Order of magnitude = 12/26 mm)

•Wall bars diameter: Expressed in mm (Order of magnitude = 10/14 mm)

•Tension/compressive reinforcement ratio: This is the dimensionless number (usually imposed by the regulations on the basis of considerations also made with regard to the ductility of the section. In any case it will lower than or equal to 1)

•Minimum reinf. net spacing: Expressed in cm (must be compatible with the size of the inert material used for the packaging of the concrete. In any case, Order of magnitude = 2.5/5 cm)

•Maximum reinf. net spacing: Expressed in cm (Order of magnitude = 4/8 cm)

•Side clear cover: Measured starting from the barycentre of the bars, expressed in cm (Order of magnitude = 4/6 cm)

•Stirrups diameter: Expressed in mm (Order of magnitude = 8/10 mm)

•Minimum stirrups spacing: Expressed in cm (Usually imposed by the regulations. In any case, Order of magnitude = 15/25 cm)

•Maximum stirrups legs distance: Expressed in cm (Order of magnitude 14/26 cm);

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