Hardening rule

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Hardening rule


Hardening rule predicts the change in the yield surface due to plastic strains. Two hardening rules can be formulated:

      Isotropic hardening: Bauschinger effect is ignored but the elastic range expands.

      Kinematic hardening: Bauschniger effect is included but elastic range remains constant.


Isotropic hardening can be represented by the plastic work per unit volume Wp thus:





Kinematic hardening is given by vector determining the translation of the yield surface in general stress state.










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